定义: specially appointed for some purposes(专为某一诉讼指定).
常见短语：agent ad litem；guardians ad litem等；
e.g. When a minor goes to court, the minor and his or her legal representative have the right to receive an agent ad litem.
A guardians ad litem is a guardian appointed to prosecute or defend a suit on behalf of a party who is legally incapable of doing so, such as an infant or an insane person.
bona fide = in good faith (善意)
定义：Bona Fide is the state of mind while doing an act, entering a contract or transaction where in such activities are done with good intention, without knowing the defects involved. Bona fide intention is a pre-condition for validity of a contract. The absence of which may tender the contract void at the instance of the affected party.
bis de eadem re ne sit action 一事不再理，禁止一事两诉。 即经法院已判决的案件，任何法院不得再次受理。
According to the law proverb “bis de eadem re ne sit actio”, after a party to a lawsuit has made a substantive claim in some method for bring a lawsuit and such a judgment has been made upon trial, such party’s right to bring a lawsuit once again has been used up, the result of which is res judicata.
Mutatis mutandis 比照。
If anyone, in violation of the provisions of this Law, conducts any restricted business activity without permission, he shall be punished by the competent authority by applying mutatis mutandis the provisions of the XX Law.
Res judicata 既判力。指法院裁判生效后的效力，除法律另有规定外，不得任意推翻。
Definition: Res judicata (in Latin) derives from Roman law, which is originally related to the use-up of actio, that is, according to the law proverb “bis de eadem re ne sit actio”, after a party to a lawsuit has made a substantive claim in some method for bring a lawsuit and such a judgment has been made upon trial, such party’s right to bring a lawsuit once again has been used up, the result of which is res judicata. Such traditional idea has lasted to the modern society. In short, the basic meaning of res judicata is that after a judgment is made, the substantive judgment as to the claim made by the parties is the norm specifying the legal relation between the parties, whereby the parties may not make any claim in conflict with such norm for bringing a dispute, and the court may not make any judgment in conflict with such norm.